Agriculture has undergone considerable changes since the early 20th century, evolving from family farming to professional agriculture, often intensive and in line with international trade. The size of farms has increased sharply and activities, in particular livestock farms, have merged to ensure economies of scale over the entire food processing sector.
This evolution has sometimes led, in certain regions where livestock farms and agriculture in general have significantly developed, to the degradation of the quality of water. At the same time, urban planning has extended to rural areas, resulting in cohabitation problems between urban and country dwellers.
The pollution generated by livestock farms is most often diffuse and chronic; it mostly relates to nitrogen, a component which is naturally present in varying quantities in livestock wastewater due to animal manure and responsible for water contamination by nitrates as well as surface water eutrophication phenomena.
The main problem for fish farms lies in the discharge of ammonia into the aquatic environment. In addition, the nuisances (odours, noise, visual pollution) which were accepted by the rural population at the beginning of the century are less and less tolerated by the new, originally urban residents.
Nuisance problems are more specifically related to livestock farms (pig and poultry farms). Most complaints concern odours. In addition to the odour problem is the larger issue of the reduction in the discharge of wet flue gas, notably ammonia, which does not generate unpleasant odours so much as disrupt the nitrogen cycle, resulting in water contamination by nitrates and eutrophication phenomena (as is the case for liquid livestock manure), but also soil acidification phenomena.
Council Directive 96/61/CE of 24 September 1996 on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (known as the “IPPC directive”).
Directive 2001/81/CE of the European Parliament and Council of 23 October 2001 defining national emission ceilings for certain air pollutants.
Book V Title 1 Regulatory section of the environmental code
Amended decree no. 53-578 of 20 May 1953: nomenclature of classified installations.
Order of 8 December 2006 stipulating the technical rules applicable to permit holding installations involving dogs under book V of the environmental code.
Order of 31 October 2006 stipulating the technical rules applicable to permit holding rabbit farms under book V of the environmental code.
Order of 7 February 2005 stipulating the technical rules applicable to permit holding cattle, poultry and/or wild fowl and pig farms under book V of the environmental code.
State Council annulment decision no. 282456 of 19 June 2006 (OJ no. 297 of 23 December 2006).
Environmental code, legislative section book V (law no. 76-663 of 19 July 1976 on classified installations for environmental protection).
Order of 19 June 2004 relative to the operational assessment provided for by amended decree no. 77-1133 of 21 September 1977.
Order of 8 July 2003 endorsing the national programme aimed at reducing air pollutant emissions (SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3).
Amended order of 24 December 2002 on the annual emissions disclosure of permit holding classified installations.
Order of 26 February 2002 on the control of the pollution caused by livestock manure.
Order of 15 September 1986 stipulating the technical rules applicable to carnivorous fur animal farms for environmental protection purposes (permit holding livestock farms).
Circular of 25/10/2006 relative to the use of deodorising products and/or products reducing gas emissions in classified livestock farms.
Circular of 19/10/2006 relative to impact assessment analysis for classified livestock farms.
Circular of 21/09/2006 relative to the amendment of the nomenclature on livestock farms.
Circular of 12/09/2006 relative to the treatment of operational assessments for classified livestock farms – implementation of Council directive no. 96/61/CE of 24 September 1996 relative to Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control.
Circular of 6 July 2005 relative to classified installations: Circular implementing the two ministerial orders of 7 February 2005 establishing the technical rules applicable to cattle, poultry and/or wild fowl and pig farms - specification of certain notions relative to livestock farms.
Circular of 14/02/05 relative to livestock farms with environmental classification – operational assessment.
Circular of 19/08/2004 on classified installations – pig farms – use of new discharge references.
Circular of 17/01/2002 relative to composting in livestock farms.
Circular DEPSE/SDEA no. 2001-7047 of 20/12/01 relative to livestock manure storage capacity and the application of the legislation on classified installations relative to livestock farms.